Incamake y’ amateka ku bukoloni, ubwigenge no kwibohora

Amateka y’ u Rwanda kimwe n’ ay’ ibindi bihugu byinshi ntabwo byoreshye kuyasobanura mu ncamake niyo tariki ya 1 na 2 Nyakanga ariko kumenya amateka y’ igihugu runaka bishobora gutuma umuntu arushaho gusobanikirwa ubuzima bwacyo bwa none.

Amateka agaragaza ko u Rwanda rushobora kuba nicyo gihugu cya nyuma cyavumbuwe n’ abakoloni b’ abanyaburayi.

Muri 1894, umudage Gustav Adolf von Götzen n

N’ ingabo ze bageze mu Rwanda nibo ba mbere bambutse igihugu baracyambuka baturutse iburasirazuba kugeza iburengera bwaryo.

Hagati ya 1853-1895 Götzen yahuye na Kigeri Rwabugiri IV nyuma y’ intambara y’ isi ya mbere yabaye muri 1914-1918  ubwo abadage bavanwaga mu Rwanda icyo gihe Loni(SDN) yahise irugabira  Ububiligi mu masezerano yiswe Traité de Versailles (1919). Yuhi Musinga et certains aristocrates tutsi.

Ibarura rya mbere ryabaye 1934-1935 niryo ryagaragaje bwa mbere ubwoko Tutsi na Hutu banerekana ibindi bigenderwaho bitandukanya abantu aho abakoloni bavugaga ko iyo umuntu yabaga afite inka zirenze 10 yabaga ari Umututsi.

Byumvikane ko kuva icyo gihe umwuga w’ umuntu niwo werekanaga ubwoko bwe ndetse umunyarwanda wese yatangiye kujyqa yitwaza indangamuntu irimo ubwoko bwe kugeza 1994.

Muri 1956,umwami Mutara Rudahiga yatangiye kuganira na Loni asaba ubwigenge ariko azagutanga nyuma y’ imyaka itatu ku ya 25 Nyakanga 1959 apfa mu buryo bw’ amayobera abajyanama be bahita bamusimbuza murumuna we Kigeli V Ndahindurwa.

Uko kwimika Ndahindurwa ntabwo bigeze binyurwa abahagarariye kiliziya gatolika ndetse n’ Abahutu kuko bifuzaga kubona umwanya muri Guverinoma nshya ibyo byatumye bigumura banatangira kwigaragambya no gutwikira Abatutsi.

Muri 1960 ,Kigeli  Ndahindurwa n’ abandi batutsi basaga 200 000 bahunze igihugu bagana muri Ouganda.

Le 25 Nzeli 1960, kamarampaka abayitabiriye batoye kuri 80% bemeza gushyiraho Repubulika,ishyaka PARMEHUTU ryahise ribona intebe 78% mu Nteka Nshingamategeko icyo gihe nibwo bwa mbere hari hashinzwe Guverinoma y’ Abahutu.

Abantu bamwe bamazwe kwicwa abandi bahunga igihugu bazira ubwoko nibwo Loni ikomeje gusa Ububiligi guha u Rwanda ubwigenge ariko byaje gushoboka ku itariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962 ubwo ku ya 26 Ukwakira 1962

Grégoire Kayibanda abaye Perezida wa Repubulika y’ u  Rwanda.

4 Nyakanga umunsi wo kwibohora

 Icyo cyiswe Revolusiyo y’ Abahutu cyagiye gicibwa intege no gushamirana hagati y’  Abahutu bari rubandanyamwinshi na rubandanyamuke Abatutsi bahoze bakomeye ariko bazakwicwamo abasaga ibihumbi 10 mu mpera za 1963.

En 1973, Grégoire Kayibanda ahiritswe ku butegetsi na Juvénal Habyarimana wahoze ari Minisitiri we w’ ingabo. Habyarimana nka perezida mushya ntabwo yoroheje politiki kuko yagiya avungura abanyarwanda agendeye ku moko n’ uturere.

Ntabwo yemereraga abatutsi kujya mu myanya ya politiki yo mu rwego rwo hejuru ariko yakoresheje amahame ya quota aho Abatutsi 10% gusa nibo bari bemerewe kwiga mu mashuli abaza ayisumbuye na kaminuza no mu kazi gaciriritse byumvikane ko nta mututsi washoboraga kuyobora akarere cyangwa se intara.

Impunzi zo muri 1959 zitangira kwisuganya

Kuva muri 1987, impunzi z’ abatutsi zahungiye muri Uganda zatangiye kwitegura gutaha ni uko zihita zishinga

FPR nk’ umutwe wa politike na RPA nk’ ishami rya gisirikare bidatsinze ku ya 1 Ukwakira 1990,Maj.Gen n’ ingabo ze bagaba ibetero mu mujyaruguru y’ u Rwanda.

Habyarimana yahise asaba inkunga ya gisirikare Ubufaransa, Ububiligi, ndetse na Zaïre.

Muri icyo gihe abatutsi bari batuye muri Kigali batangiye guhigwa bukware bashinjwa gushyigikira  FPR/Inkotanyi.

Nyuma y’ aho ishyaka MRND ritangiye gucika intege muri 1990 byabaye ngombwa ko Itegekonshinga rivugururwa n’ uko amashyaka menshi atangira gukora ku ya 10 Kamena 1991.

MDR/PARMEHUTU yemererwa n’ amategeko gukora ndetse n’ ayandi mashyaka 15 arashingwa muri 1992 ayo mashyaka atangira gutegura imyigaragambyo muri Kigali yamagana Leta ya Habyarimana.

Mu rwego rwo guhangana n’ abo bantu bari barambiwe Habyarimana ishyaka rye MRND ryahise rishinga umutwe w’ INTERAHAMWE.

Icyo gihe amashyaka yo muri opozisiyo yakomeje gustinda amatora , Habyarimana atangira gutakaza igice kinini cy’ ubutegetsi bwe.

Mu ntangiriro za  1993, inzego zikomeye nka FMI na Banque mondiale byahise bihagarika inkunga y’ amafaranga zageneraga u Rwanda biba ngombwa ko Perezida  Habyarimana yemera imishyikirano ya Arusha muri Tanzania.

Ku ya  6 Mata 1994, indege ya  Habyarimana irahanutse mu gihe yashaka kugwa I Kigali abatavugaga rumwe nawe duhereye kuri Agathe Uwilingiyimana n’ abandi batangira kwicwa.

Bucyeye hashyizweho guverinoma y’ inzibacyuho Kambanda ari Minisitiri w’ Intebe ubwo nibwo jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yahise iba.

Ifatwa rya Kigali na FPR/Inkotanyi

Tariki  4 Nyakanga 1994, ingabo za RPA ziyobowe na Paul Kagamé zahise zifata umujyi wa Kigali na nyuma y’ aho zakomeje urugamba rwo guhagarika jenoside yakozwe mu minsi ijana ihitana abantu basaga miliyoni imwe.

Guhagarika intambara byagiye bigorana cyane kuko gushyira mu bikorwa ibyavuye mu masezerano ya Arusha byagiye bicerezwa na Habyarimana ndetse n’ abambari be b’ intagondwa za CDR.

Buri mwaka kuva muri1995,abanyarwanda bizihiza tariki 4 Nyakanga nk’ umunsi wo kwibohora ingoyi z’ umwanzi ndetse ni nabwo icyunamo cy’ iminsi 100 cyo kwibuka abazize jenoside gisozwa aho abaturage bibutswa ko bagomba guharanira ejo hazaza ariko batibagirwa ibyahise.

Gaston Rwaka/Celebzmagazine.com

 

 

 

 

 




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