Wari uzi ko abenshi mu bagore n’abakobwa bakoresha amavuta atukuza no kwidefiriza batazi ingaruka zabyo?

Kuba abagore n’abakobwa badahabwa ibisobanuro bihagije ku mavuta adefiriza cyangwa se anyereza imisatsi (produits) mu mujyi wa Kigali bituma abenshi bayakoresha gusa batitaye ku ngaruka zayo kuko baba bashaka gucya gusa kubera uko bifuza gusa neza cyangwa kujya ku micyo nk’uko babyita. Ese mbere yo kujya ku ngaruka nibura baba bazi inkomoko y’amavuta adefiriza ? Usibye ibihuha biyavugwaho burya amavuta adefiriza afite inkomoko mu bucakara ! Umwirabura wakosheje yahanishwaga kwinika umutwe we mu ndobo y’amazi avanze mo soude akavamo yahiye ariko n’umusatsi wanyereye. Abandi birabura ngo bahise bafatiraho !  

N’ubwo bigoranye gusobanura inkomoko y’iyi myumvire, hari bamwe bavuga ko produits zikoreshwa ziva ikuzimu, abandi bagahwihwisa ko ari amavuta aba yaravuye mu mpinja zavutse zidashyitse cyangwa inda abakobwa n’abagore baba bakuyemo.

Umwari uri mu kigero cy’imyaka 25 ukoresha aya mavuta avuga ko nubwo adefiriza atazi inkomoko yayo uretse byinshi ayumvaho.

Undi mugore yagize ati “Kabisa nubwo ndefiriza numva babivugaho byinshi ariko simbyiteho. Hari abavuga ko akorerwa mu nganda abandi nkumva ngo bayakora mu mpinja zivuka zidashyitse n’inda z’abakobwa baba bakuyemo ariko sinamenya ukuri kwabyo.”

Umugore witwa Uwimpuhwe uzunguza imyenda mu Mujyi wa Kigali na we ati “Yewe sinabimenya pe! Ubwo se koko nabitaho igihe? Icyo mpfa ni uko mbona umusatsi wanjye umeze neza. Icyakora menya ikorerwa mu kuzimu njya numva ngo hari abazihakura sinamenya…”

Bamwe mu badefiriza bemeza ko iyo myumvire ihari ariko bakanavuga ko aya mavuta bayakura mu maduka ayakura mu nganda zizwi.

Kudefiriza ngo byaba bifite inkomoko mu bucakara

Mbere y’ubucakara (esclavage) Abanyafurika baterekaga imisatsi karemano bakayikoramo insokozo zitandukanye hagendewe ku mico. Bivugwa kandi ko hamwe insokozo zashoboraga gusobanura byinshi nk’urukundo, ukwirabura (deuil), guta icyizere cyangwa kubura icyubahiro, abandi nabo bayizingagamo ibiziriko binini (dreads)

Hano mu Rwanda bategaga amasunzu ku bakuru, ibisage ku bana naho abagore bagasokoza uruhanika bagatega urugori  …

Ibyo byose byashyizweho akadomo no kujyanwa bunyago. Ni ibintu byumvikana iyo wumvise uko bajyanwaga bakamara amezi menshi mu nzira, iyo nzara n’inyota babaga bariho n’iyo mpangango yo guteswa imiryango yabo, umuntu wese yakwiyumvisa isura imisatsi ititabwoho yasigaranaga, benshi rero byarangiraga bayogoshwe.

Kuva icyo gihe kugeza n’ubu, imisatsi ifatwa nk’ikintu cy’ingenzi ku rwego rumwe n’indi mitako (bijou) bambara nk’inigi cyangwa imiringa n’ibindi mu rwego rwo kurimba.

Amakuru agaragara mu bitangazamakuru bitandukanye avuga ko kuva abirabura bacuruzwa nk’abacakara bagakurwa ku butaka bwabo bakajyanwa gukora uburetwa imahanga, ibintu byahindutse kugeza ku mibereho yabo no ku nsokozo kuko abagabo batangiye kwiyogosha bamaraho, abagore nabo bacika ku mico yo gusuka inweri yagaragaraga mu bice bitandukanye bya Afrika. Bivugwa ko ari ho hatangiye umuco wo gutega udutambaro mu mutwe abirabura kazi bakaba barahatirwaga kubikora batyo mu rwego rwo guhisha imisatsi yabo kuko yateraga iseseme ba shebuja b’abera.

Ibyo byatewe n’uko icyo gihe umwirabura yateshejwe agaciro, yumvishwa ko aremye nabi kandi ko ari hasi bityo bigimugiraho ingaruka no ku bisekuruza byakurikiyeho.

Kuva icyo gihe ubwiza bw’Umunyafurika bwatangiye guteshwa agaciro hagamijwe kugaragaza ko  buri hasi cyane y’ubwiza bw’umuzungu ufite uruhu rwera n’imisatsi miremire kandi yoroshye, ari bwo abirabura batangiye gushaka kwigana ubwo bwiza bumva ko kwihindura ari ngombwa bityo havuka amavuta anyereza imisatsi yabo n’atukuza uruhu rwabo.

Uko kudefiriza byatangiye

Bamwe mu banyamateka bavuga ko ubwo ivanguraruhu ryari ririmbanyije ahagana mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 20 , abirabura benshi bagiye bagerageza kwisanisha n’abazungu . Bimwe mu byo bakoraga hakaba harimo no kurambura cg kunyereza imisatsi.

Urubuga www.afriquefemme.com rwo ruvuga ko iyo abazungu bashakaga guhana umucakara wabasuzuguye bamufataga bakamwinika umutwe mu ndobo irimo ibinyabutabire bita “soude” hanyuma imisatsi ye yizingazinze igahita inyerera ikarambuka.

Kuva ubwo abandi bacakara babonaga ko imisatsi ya begenzi babo yanyereye bagize igitekerezo cyo kunyereza imisatsi yabo bakoresheje soude ivanze n’ibirayi hamwe n’igi, hashize igihe bihindurwa n’inzobere mu by’ubutabire, Garret Morgan, waje guhimba amavuta adefiriza bimutunguye.

Garret Augustus Morgan wavutse mu 1877 ahitwa Kentucky muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika yari umwe mu Banyafurika babaye muri Amerika; ku myaka 18 ni bwo yavumbuye amavuta adefiriza ariko bimutunguye.

Ubwo uyu musore yari ari mu cyumba adoderamo imyenda, yamennye amavuta y’imashini ku nto ki ze, ayahanaguza umupira w’ubudodo yari yambaye akomeza akazi ke kugeza atashye.

Bukeye bwaho Morgan agarutse ku kazi yasanze ubudodo bw’umupira bwarambutse. Mu gutangara kwe yagize igitekerezo cyo kugerageza gushyira ayo amvuta y’imashini ku bwoya bw’imbwa y’umuturanyi we. Amaze kubikora ubwoya bw’iyo mbwa bwahise burambuka neza ku buryo nyirayo yayiyobewe.

Nyuma yo kubona icyo bitanze, Morgan yagerageje na none gukoresha ayo mavuta ku misatsi ye bwite abona igisubizo kimwe, ahita akora produit yiswe “Morgan’s Hair Refiner Cream.”

Hashize imyaka itanu mu 1910 Sosiyete ye “Morgan Hair Refiner Company” yatangiye gukora ubwoko butandukanye bwa produit, amasabune y’amazi yoza mu mutwe (Shampooing) nyuma yo kudefiriza, produits zihindura amabara y’umusatsi, ibyuma bifasha mu kurambura neza umusatsi ndetse n’amavuta acyesha uruhu.

Iyi sosiyete yagiye itera imbere ku buryo yakomeje kujya ikora n’ibindi bikoresho bitandukanye byifashishwa mu kugira neza imisatsi.

Kuva icyo gihe abandi nka George Ellis Johnson, baje nyuma bakora andi moko atandukanye anyereza imisatsi, ariko Morgan yari yaramaze kunguka bihebuje. Abamukurikiye na bo byarabakijije ku buryo hagiye hakorwa na produits zigenewe abagabo.

Mu mwaka wa 1957 George Ellis Johnson n’umugore we bongeyeho produit abagore bakoresha bonyine batagiye mu nzu zitunganya imisatsi kandi uko imyaka yashiraga “Johnson Products” yagiye ihanga ubundi bwoko iruhande rwa Sosiyete nka Carson na Soft Sheen.

Kugeza n’ubu inganda zikora amavuta adefiriza zagiye ziyongera impande zose z’Isi bitewe n’uko abadefiriza babaye benshi maze zunguka akayabo k’amafaranga.

Ese produits zikoze mu ki?

Mu kiganiro www.ubuzima.rw yagiranye n’abagore batandukanye byagaragaye ko abenshi batazi icyo aya mavuta akozemo ndetse n’uburyo ashobobora gukoreshwa atagize ibyo yangiza bitewe n’umubiri wa buri wese.

Ubundi kudefiriza ni ugufata imisatsi ukayirambura ku buryo ihinduka kandi ikanyerera ndetse ikoroha, igatakaza isura y’umwimerere wayo.

Urubuga www.amina-mag.com rugaragaza ko amavuta akoreshwa mu kudefiriza aba afashe nk’amata y’ikivuguto gikomeye.Aba agizwe kandi n’ibintu bitatu by’ingenzi aribyo alcalin/alkalin, amavuta (huiles) n’ibindi bimeze nk’amazi (émulsions) bifasha mu kuyibika.

Alcalin ubwayo iba irimo ibinyabutabire nka hydroxyde de sodium, hydroxyde de potassium, hydroxyde de lithinium cyangwa hydroxyde ya guanidine bituma umusatsi uhinduka; amavuta/huile yo atuma umusatsi usa neza, ukabengerana kandi ugasokoreka byoroshe ndetse agafasha mu kurinda uruhu rwo ku mutwe.

Amavuta adefiriza akunze kuboneka ku isoko ni agizwe n’ibinyabutabire nka hydroxyde de sodium na hydroxyde deguanidine. Itandukaniro ry’izi produit ni uko iya mbere ikozwe muri hydroxyde de sodium bita “défrisant avec soude” ituma imisatsi icya ukabona ibengerana ariko igakunda gutwika uruhu.

Produit ikoze muri hydroxide de guanidine cyangwa “défrisant sans soude” ntitwikana nk’iya mbere ariko ikavugwaho ko ishobora gutuma uruhu rwuma. Mu gihe cyo guhitamo ubwoko wakoresha uba usabwa kugisha inama inzobere kuko zose zigira ingaruka zitandukanye bitewe n’uwazikoresheje.

Rimwe na rimwe hari ubwo kudefriza bikorwa n’abatabihugukiwe ugasanga biteje ibibazo.

Hari n’ubwo imisatsi ipfuka

N’ubwo inkomoko yo kudefriza ititabwaho cyane abahanga bagaragaza ko iyo bikozwe nabi kandi bikaba inshuro nyinshi bivamo ingaruka zikomeye cyane zitagira igaruriro n’ubwo bitabuza ababikunda kubyitabira kandi ku bwinshi!

Icyakora uko iminsi igenda ihita bamwe mu bagore n’abakobwa bahitamo kutadefriza imisatsi yabo bakayitunga ari umwimerere.

Ese waba wifuza gutunga umusatsi wawe utanyerejwe ? Menya uko wabigenza mu gice kizakurikira iki.




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