UNESCO itangaza ko buri byumweru bibiri ururimi nibura rumwe ruzimira ku isi,Ikinyarwanda bite?

Indimi nyinshi zarazimiye nkuko tugiye kubireba muri iyi nkuru,izindi nazo iyo bazivuga wifata ku munwa uti ‘nyagasani MANA yanjye’,inyinshi muri izi ziribagirana zikaba amateka abarirwa mu gatebo k’ibyahise zikaba aka ya mvugo ngo ‘kera habayeho’ ariko byose impamvu ni imwe si ukuzimira ngo abantu babe ibiragi oya ahubwo zizimira bene zo bisanisha n’indimi zivugwa mu bihugu bikomeye cyangwa abize bavuye mu mashuri,gusa iyo tuvuga ururimi mu gisobanuro ni umuco abenerurimi bahuriyeho ariko kubera imyumvire y’ibihe turimo uvuga ururimi gakondo rw’iwabo rw’abasekuruza uwo ni umuturage,yarasigaye mu iterambere uzi ubwenge ni uzi kwigana akanavuaga neza neza nk’abo mu bihugu bikomeye uwo akwiye intebe akayobora kuko yatandukanye burundu n’imico y’abakurambere be.

Indimi ziragenda zibagirana

Nkuko tubikesha raporo ya UNESCO uru ni urutonde rwa zimwe mu ndimi zimaze kuzimira cyangwa bigaragara ko nta kabuza zizazimira hatagize igikorwa n’ubwo isi muri rusange ishishikajwe no kudatakaza na rumwe mu ndimi zahozeho ariko ibihugu bikomeye bishishikajwe no gucuruza no gukuza ubuhangange bwabyo nabyo bishishikajwe no kumva indimi zabo zikoreshwa mu isi yose, haba mu bukungu cyangwa mu nzego z’ubuyobozi ugasanga ngo indimi zemewe mu gihugu ni izi, muri izo rumwe cyangwa ebyiri usanga ari iz’ibihugu bikomeye

Ururimi ruzimira kubera impamvu nyinshi! Impamvu iza imbere cyane ni uko ku isi hari indimi zabaye nk’iziharira imivugire ahanini bitewe n’uko ibihugu zikomoka mo bikomeye, bityo abantu benshi bagashaka kuzikoresha bakibagirwa indimi kavukire z’iwabo.

Ku ndimi zirenga ibihumbi 6,700 zivugwa ku isi, kimwe cya kabiri kuri ubu zifite ibibazo birimo no kuba zazimira burundu bitarenze ku mpera z’iki kinyejana. UNESCO itangaza ko buri byumweru bibiri ururimi nibura rumwe ruzimira ku isi, ahanini kuzimira k’ururimi biterwa n’uko umuntu ukuze ari nawe uba asigaye mu bavugaga urwo rurimi aba yitabye Imana akajyana n’urwo rurimi atarusigiye abakiri bato.Gupfa kw’abo bantu baba bakuze ari bo bonyine bari basigaranye ururimi, bishyira urwo rurimi mu zifite ibibazo byo kuba zazimira burundu.

Kuri ubu abahanga mu by’indimi bemeza ko 85% by’indimi zose ku isi zisigaranye abantu batagera ku bihumbi ijana bazivuga.

Ese ni ukubera iki kugumana ururimi gakondo ari ingenzi?
Ubundi ururimi ni kimwe mu bintu bigaragaza umuco w’igihugu rukanakomeza ubusabane hagati y’abaturage bacyo!

Dore indimi z’uduce dutandukanye ku isi zazimiye kuri ubu zikaba zitakivugwa cyangwa zivugwa n’abantu bacye cyane nabwo bakuze gusa:

Ururimi rwa Amharic rw’abaturage bo muri Israel:
N’ubwo rutari ku rutonde rwa UNESCO mu ndimi zazimiye burundu, ururimi rwa Amharic rushobora kuzimira burundu mu baturage b’Abayahudi bo muri Ethiopia baturutse muri Israel mu kinyejana cya 20. Aba baturage b’Abayahudi batuye mu gace kabo bonyine muri Ethiopia bakaba batajya bahura n’abandi Bayahudi kuva mu mwaka w’1860.

Israel yemeye aba bantu nk’abaturage bayo mu mwaka w’1975, batangira kwemererwa kujya muri Israel. Bakiri muri Ethiopia,bajyaga bavuga indimi za Cushite na Agaw ariko nyuma bavuga ururimi rwa Tiginya. Aho batangiye guhungukira muri Israel batangira kujya bavuga ururimi rw’igiheburayo, bityo ururimi rwabo gakondo rwa Amharic batangira kujya barwibagirwa.

Indimi za gakondo z’u Bushinwa:
Abahanga mu by’indimi bemeza ko ku isi hari indimi zigera kuri 200 zivugwa mu bihugu bituwe cyane, UNESCO ikemeza ko kugeza ku mpera z’iki kinyejana izigera kuri kimwe cya kabiri cyazo zizaba zitakivugwa. Muri izo ndimi hari mo indimi zivugwa n’abaturage bo mu bushinwa mu bice by’amajyepfo y’uburasirazuba ku mupaka wa Myanmar na Thailand.

Izi ndimi zirimo ururimi rwa Chintaw rusigaranye abantu batageze kuri 30 baruvuga, Laji rusigaranye abantu batageze kuri 250 baruvuga nk’uko UNESCO ibitangaza. Indimi zo mu bice by’amajyaruguru y’ubushinwa nazo zigeze habi hari mo n’ururimi rwa Manchur.

Kuri ubu umuryango ushinzwe kwita ku ndimi zazimiye uri gukora ibishoboka byose ngo wegeranye ibirango n’amagambo amwe n’amwe yo mu ndimi za Zijun Samadu na Tibeto-Surman nazo zamaze kuzimira mu bushinwa. Indimi zavugwaga n’abantu bari batuye ubutayu bwa Tibet nazo ziri kugenda zizimira kuva ubushinwa bwakwigarurira agace bukirukana mo abari bahatuye rwagati mu kinyejana cya 20.

Indimi gakondo za Afurika:
Muri Afurika habarurwa indimi zigera ku gihumbi Magana atanu, aho abantu batagera ku 5,000 aribo basigaye bavuga kimwe cya kane cy’izo ndimi. Indimi nyinshi za gakondo za Afurika ziri kugenda zizimira Bitewe n’uko hari kuza iterambere ritegeka abaturage gakondo gukoresha indimi zizana n’iryo terambere.

Umuryango ushinzwe kurengera indimi zazimiye uri gushora amafaranga menshi mu gace ka Suba muri Kenya kugira ngo barebe ko nibura bakomeza ururimi gakondo rwa Olusuba narwo rugenda ruzimira. Izindi ndimi gakondo zo muri Afurika zazimiye hari mo ururimi rwa Kaande rwakoreshwaga n’abaturage bo muri Gabon, Aminere rw’abaturage ba Ghana, na Kung rwakoreshwaga n’abaturage bo mu butayu bwa Kalahari.

Indimi gakondo zo mu burusiya no mu butayu bwa Siberiya:
Ubushyamirane bwa politiki bwagiye bwibasira agace ka Siberiya bwagize uruhare mu izimira ry’ururimi rwa Os rwakoreshwaga muri aka gace. Leta y’ubumwe bw’abasoviyeti yakuye abaturage bavugaga uru rurimi rwa Os kuri liste y’abantu bafite ubwoko bwihariye mu mwaka w’1959, kugeza mu mwaka w’1999 ubwo Leta yari yongeye kubemera nk’ubwoko.

Muri icyo gihe, abantu batangiye kureka urwo rurimi. Kuri ubu ikigo gishinzwe ururimi mu burusiya kiri gukusanya amagambo amwe n’amwe yo muri urwo rurimi abasigaye baruvuga batarapfa. UNESCO yashyize indimi zigera kuri 300 zo mu burusiya ku rutonde rw’indimi zazimiye hari mo nk’inshoberamahanga zo mu rurimi rwa Tatar, Karel zavugwaga cyane cyane n’abantu baturiye Finland na Pologne.

Indimi gakondo zo mu birwa biherereye mu Nyanja ya pasifika:
Indimi gakondo zibarirwa mu majana zo mu birwa biherereye mu Nyanja ya pasifika kuri ubu zarazimiye ahanini bitewe n’uko ibyo bihugu byakoronijwe n’ibihugu bikomeye bityo abaturage byabyo bakibagirwa indimi zabo bagakoresha iz’abakoroni.

Mu birwa bya Papua New Guinea, indimi zigera ku 196 mu ndimi 850 gakondo, zarazimiye nk’uko UNESCO ibitangaza. Kuri ubu abantu bagera kuri 49 nibo bonyine basigaye bavuga ururimi rwa Tench. Mu birwa bya Philippines, indimi zigera kuri 15 zamaze kuzimira burundu.

Muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, abantu batarenze 1,000 nibo bonyine bakivuga indimi gakondo zo mu birwa bya Hawaii, indimi zo mu birwa bya Solomon zigera kuri 15 nazo zamaze kuzimira burundu. Mu mwaka w’1987, mu birwa bya New Zealand bashyize ho komisiyo yo kugarura ururimi rwa Maori bagamije kurugarura mu ndimi zivugwa mu gihugu none kuri ubu ni ururimi rwemewe muri leta ndetse kuri ubu rukoreshwa mu bucamanza.

Indimi gakondo zo mu Buyapani:
Ururimi rwa Ainu rukaba rwari ururimi gakondo rw’ikirwa cya Hokkaido kimwe mu birwa bigize igihugu cy’ubuyapani rwarazimiye burundu. Abantu bo mu bwoko bwa Ainu, nibo bari bafite ururimi gakondo barashize bose mu myaka 300 ishize bitewe n’uko leta itabemeraga. Leta y’ubuyapani icyo gihe yabategetse ko bagomba kuvuga ururimi rw’ikiyapani.

N’ubwo kuri ubu habarurwa aba Ainu 10,000 basigaye, ururimi gakondo rwabo ruvugwa n’abantu babarirwa hagati ya 15 na 40 bonyine. Uretse uru rurimi, UNESCO yashyize ku rutonde izindi ndimi zigera kuri 7 mu buyapani zazimiye harimo n’ururimi rwa Okinawa na Yaeyama.

Indimi gakondo zo mu Buhinde:
N’ubwo ururimi rwa Hindu ari rwo rurimi rwa mbere rwemewe mu buhinde n’icyongereza kikaba ururimi rwa 2, abahinde barenga miliyari 2 bavuga izindi ndimi gakondo. Izo ndimi gakondo ziri kugenda zizimira bitewe n’uko abana mu mashuri bategekwa gukoresha ururimi rwa Hindu n’icyongereza gusa. UNESCO ibara indimi zigera ku 196 zazimiye burundu mu buhinde. Indimi nka Sora, Sirmaudi, Ruga, n’izindi ndimi gakondo ziri ku rutonde rw’izindi zigenda zizimira mu gihugu cy’ubuhinde.

Indimi gakondo z’I Burayi:
Iterambere mu by’ubukungu ry’ikinyejana cya 20 n’icya 21 ryatumye ururimi gakondo rwa Ireland ruzimira. Iri zimira ryari rigiye guterwa n’uko abaturage ba Ireland bari batangiye gukoresha icyongereza bitewe n’uko abategekaga Ireland bari abongereza gusa.

Kuva Ireland yaba agace k’ubucuruzi n’ubukerarugendo, abaturage bayo batangiye kugaruka ku rurimi gakondo ariko nanone uru rurimi ruracyari kure kuko mu mashuri ruracyafite umwanya muto.

Indimi nka Basque rwo mu majyaruguru ya Espagne no mu majyepfo y’ubufaransa narwo ruracyarwana no kutazimira ariko ruri kure kuko UNESCO irufata nk’ururimi rwazimiye. Indimi nka Saami rwo muri Scandinavia, Vilamovia rwo mu gace ka Vilamowice gaherereye mu majyepfo ya Pologne nazo ziragenda zizimira kuko zisigaranye abazivuga batarenze 70 nabo bari mu za bukuru.

Indimi gakondo zo muri Amerika y’epfo:
Mu gihugu cya Brazil, abaturage gakondo baho babarirwa kuri 0.2% by’abatuye igihugu bakaba bavuga indimi zigera ku 170 gakondo ariko zose zikaba zigenda zizimira. Izindi ndimi gakondo z’abaturage ba Amerika y’epfo nka Ache rw’abaturage ba Paraguay, na Leo rusigaranye abantu bagera kuri 20 baruvuga gusa mu gihugu cya Bolivia ziri kuzimira.

Indimi gakondo zo muri Amerika ya ruguru:
UNESCO kuri ubu ibara indimi zigera ku 115 muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika zazimiye kuva mu gihe cy’ubukoroni bw’abanyaburayi. 53 muri izo ndimi zazimiye hagati mu kinyejana cya 20. Izimira ry’izi ndimi ryatewe n’uko abanyeshuri mu mashuri bahanwaga iyo babaga bavuze indimi gakondo zabo.

Indimi zizimira muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika harimo nka Arapaho rusigaranye abantu batarenze 1000 baruvuga, kandi bose batuye muri leta ya Wyoming, ururimi rwa Yuchi rwo muri Oklahoma, narwo ruragenda ruzimira kuko rusigaranye abantu batarenze 5 baruvuga.

Mu gihugu cya Canada, indimi zigera kuri 88 zamaze kuzimira hari mo ururimi rwa Lakota na Oneida. Indimi zirenga 140 zarazimiye mu gihugu cya Mexique n’ibindi bihugu bya Amerika yo hagati, hari mo Ixil rusigaranye abantu 60 bonyine baruvuga muri Guatemala n’amajyepfo ya Mexique, Kickapoo rusigaranye abantu batarenze 150 baruvuga muri Mexique no muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika.

Tubibutse ko kugira ngo ururimi ruzimire ari uko ruba rutakivugwa cyangwa se rusigaranye abantu bacye cyane baruvuga kandi bigaragara ko nta kizere ko abana bato bakomeza kurukoresha! Ururimi rugomba kurindwa kuko ni kimwe mu bintu biranga umuco w’igihugu kandi rugatuma abagituye basabana kuko baba babasha kumvikana.

Ntitwasoza iyi nkuru tutavuze Latin (ikilatini), nacyo ni rumwe mu ndimi zigenda zerekana kunanirwa ejo n’ejobundi narwo bikomeje gutya ruzashyirwa mu ndimi zazimiye, kugendana n’ibihe rwarasigaye kandi umubare w’abaruvuga ugenda ugabanuka umunsi ku munsi.

Turebye iwacu mu Rwanda naho umuntu yakwibaza? Kuko ururimi rw’ikinyarwanda rugenda rutakaza umwimerere warwo bimwe bituruka ku bize bashaka kwerekana ko batandukanye n’abatarize bakavuga ikinyarwanda bakivangamo indimi z’amahanga bityo ntushobore kumenya niba yavuze ikinyarwanda cyangwa se hari urundi rurimi yavuze,inteko y’umuco n’ururimi itakamba umunsi ku munsi itabaza mu ngeri zose z’abantu ngo basigasire ururimi rw’ikinyarwanda gusa ikigaragara biragoye kuko iterambere tujyamo ridutegeka gukoresha indimi zo mu bihugu bikomeye kugira ngo dukomeze kubaho neza mu isi.

Dusabwa gutanga ibitekerezo byacu mu ndimi zabo, dusabwa kumenya indimi zabo ngo tubashe gukoresha ibikoresho byabo, isi y’ubukungu bwihuta turimo none iradusaba gukurikira ifaranga umuco n’ibiwushamikiyeho nta mwanya munini bisa naho bigifite mu buzima bwa buri munsi.

Jean Bosco Nzayisenga-Celebzmagazine.com




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