Twibukiranye-Imyaka 30 irashize mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari habayeho intambara z’urudaca zatwaye ibintu n’abantu

Hagati y’imyaka ya 1980 na 2010, Akarere k’Ibiyaga Bigari muri Afurika kabayemo intambara zitoroshye, aho nibura buri myaka itanu hadukaga imirwano mishya. Mu myaka icumi gusa habaga nibura intambara eshatu.

Akarere k’Ibiyaga Bigari muri Afurika kabayemo intambara zitoroshye

Ababyiruka babyumva nk’amateka asanzwe, ariko abageze mu zabukuru bitsa imitima iyo babyibutse, buri umwe wari uhari, akavuga aka wa mugani ngo “Harabaye ntihakabe.”

Byari bibabaje kubona abatuye ibiyaga bigari barabagaho ubuzima bw’umunsi gusa, budafite icyerekezo cy’ahazaza h’ibihugu byabo, buri wese yarabaye “Mbarubukeye.”

Nta cyizere na mba cyari mu batuye aka karere, uhereye mu Burundi, Uganda, Zaïre, u Rwanda, udasize no muri Angola byacikaga hagati y’Ingabo za UNITA za Jonas Savimbi n’iza MPLA, ishyaka rya José Eduardo Dos Santos wari ku butegetsi.

Ikimenyimenyi imiryango ihuza uturere yageragejwe gushyirwaho yahitaga isenyuka. Urugero ni O.B.K, yahuzaga ibihugu bikora ku Kibaya cy’Uruzi rw’Akagera itaramaze kabiri.

CPGL nayo yari yahanyanyaje na n’ubu iracyavugwa nk’amateka nayo adafatika. Kenshi ba Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal w’u Rwanda; Buyoya Pierre na Bagaza Jean Baptiste bayoboye u Burundi na Mobutu Sese Seko wa Zaïre, bahuzwaga no kuryaryana gusa hamwe no kurushanwa kuvuga Igifaransa muri za disikuru zibereye amatwi ariko nta kizirimo.

1981-1986, muri Uganda rwari rwambikanye hagati ya Museveni na Obote

N’ubwo abaturage ba Uganda bamagana Yoweri Kaguta Museveni utegetse iki gihugu imyaka isaga 32, hari n’aho amateka agaragaza ko akajagari kagihozemo nta kindi cyari kugahima kitari ubutegetsi bwa Museveni.

Ni mu gihe kandi Uganda yagize akavuyo mu ba Perezida babanjirije Museveni, harimo n’abategekaga ukwezi kumwe.

Nka Yusuf Kironde Lule waciye agahigo k’abategetse igihe gito, yafashe ubutegetsi ku wa 13 Mata abuvaho ku wa 20 Kamena 1979 nta n’amezi abiri ashize.

Godfrey Binaisa we wamuruseho gato yabumazeho amezi 11. Abandi nka Milton Obote ari na we warwanye inkundura na Museveni wasangaga ategetse Uganda ibyiciro birenze kimwe.

Kuva tariki ya 15 Mata 1966 kugeza 25 Mutarama 1971 yategetse Uganda, aza kubwisubiza mu 1980 kugeza 1985 ubwo General Tito Okello yamuhirikaga, na we agahirikwa na Museveni.

Iyi ntambara ya Museveni kandi yari ihuriyemo abatari bake mu Karere, kuko hari n’Abanyarwanda bari impunzi muri iki gihugu bayigizemo uruhare rukomeye.

Mu 1990, nyuma y’imyaka ine intambara icubye muri Uganda, mu Rwanda rwahise rwambikana

Uwavuga ko hari igihe aka karere kari kameze nk’akatewe n’umuzimu w’intambara ntabwo byaba ari igikabyo. Nawe se intambara zasimburanaga nk’aho ari amarushanwa, buri myaka itanu cyangwa itatu amasasu yaravugaga.

N’ubwo hari abemeza ko Habyarimana wabaye Perezida w’u Rwanda kuva mu 1973 kugeza 1994 yari incakura n’indyarya muri politiki y’ikinyoma, icyo kuvuga ko yatewe na FPR-Inkotanyi atunguwe cyo cyaba ari cya kindi kinyagisha umugabo, cyanatumye atsindwa intambara uruhenu, muri make ntacyo kumena amaraso byari bibwiye abategetsi bari bariho icyo gihe.

Abazi amateka y’intambara yo kubohoza u Rwanda yabaye hagati ya 1990-1994 bemeza ko mu myaka ya 1988-1989, amakuru y’uko FPR-Inkotanyi n’ingabo zayo bari kuzatera u Rwanda niba nta gihindutse ngo impunzi zitahe mu mahoro bitari ubwiru kuko n’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda ryabivugaga umunsi ku wundi.

Hari n’abavuga ko Habyarimana we ubwe n’ubwo yanangiraga kwemera ko impunzi zari zarahejejwe hanze zitaha, yari anazi ko muri zo harimo abasirikare bakomeye. Ibi bishingira ko mu 1987 yitabiriye ibirori byo kwambika ipeti rya General Major, uwatangije urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda Fred Gisa Rwigema, umwe mu basirikare b’Abanyarwanda bafashije Yoweri Museveni kubohoza Uganda.

Habyarimana ngo ntaho atapfunze ibipfunsi ashaka guhunga ikibazo cy’impunzi z’Abanyarwanda, kugeza n’aho yatangiye ibiganiro na Perezida Omar Bongo wa Gabon ngo amufashe amuhe ubutaka zituzweho. Icyo gihe yavugaga ko ngo u Rwanda rwari rumeze nk’ikirahuri cyuzuye amazi kitari kongerwamo andi.

Iby’intambara z’amasasu byaje kuvaho hajyamo imishyikirano i Arusha muri Tanzania yasojwe kuya 4 Kanama 1993, hagati ya Leta na FPR-Inkotanyi.

Nyuma y’umwaka umwe Habyarimana yishwe arashwe, ndetse Leta yari ayoboye ishyira mu bikorwa umugambi wa Jenoside yahitanye Abatutsi basaga miliyoni kuva muri Mata 1994 kugeza tariki ya 4 Nyakanga uwo mwaka, ubwo Ingabo za FPR-Inkotanyi zabohozaga igihugu, zikanahagarika iyo jenoside.

Mobutu nta somo yakuye ku byabaye kuri Habyarimana na Obote

Burya ngo amatwi arimo urupfu ntiyumva. Mobutu nta somo yakuye ku bamubanjirije kuva ku butegetsi.Perezida Mobutu aho gukosora amakosa ba Okello na Habyarimana bakoze ngo arinde igihugu cye ibyago n’intambara, yahaye urwaho n’inzira ingabo z’umutwe w’Abafaransa wari uje gukingira ikibaba ubutegetsi bwari busize bukoze Jenoside mu Rwanda. Yongeraho no kwakira abari abasirikare n’interahamwe basize baruhekuye kandi abakirana n’intwaro zabo, mu gihe bibujijwe mu mategeko mpuzamahanga ko impunzi zakiranwa ibikoresho bya gisirikare, Mobutu we yarabikoze izuba riva.

Ibi ubwabyo byatumye u Rwanda rudashobora kubirebera, maze ku wa 6 Ukwakira 1996, Ingabo z’u Rwanda zifatanije n’imitwe yishyize hamwe ngo ikureho Mobutu yari ihuriye mu cyiswe Alliance des Forces Démocratique pour la Libération du Congo wari uyobowe na Laurent D. Kabila zitera Goma n’inkengero zayo, ndetse ku itariki ya 25 Nyakanga mu mwaka wakurikiyeho Zaïre ziyifata yose, impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zari zarafashwe bugwate ziratahuka.

Bidateye kabiri, mu 1998-2003, Congo yadutsemo indi ntambara

Iyi ntambara yabiciye bigacika ndetse yaje no kwitirirwa iya Afurika, yasize ishegeshe Akarere k’Ibiyaga Bigari cyane ko yakocoraniyemo Ingabo z’ibihugu bisaga 10 kandi bikomeye.

Ku ruhande rumwe rw’abashyigikiye inyeshyamba za RCD-Goma, hari u Rwanda, Uganda na Burundi, ku rundi hari Congo, Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Tchad n’ibindi bihugu byari bishyigikiye Laurent Désire Kabila.

Ni intambara yasojwe abari bahanganye bashyize umukono ku masezerano y’amahoro yasinyiwe mu Mujyi wa Sun City muri Afurika y’Epfo, ku wa 4 Mata 2003, agahenge kaza gutyo.

Nyuma yaho mu 2007, ibyumvikanyweho hagati ya RCD-Goma na Leta ya Congo binaniranye gushyirwa mu bikorwa, General Major Laurent Nkunda, yashinze umutwe wa CNDP we n’ingabo ze bahangana na Leta karahava.

Iyi ntambara ariko nayo yaje gusozwa n’andi masezerano y’amahoro mu 2009, ariko ntiyatera kabiri kuko mu 2012, havutse undi mutwe witiriwe M23, iri zina rikaba ryaributsaga ko ayo masezerano ya Nkunda na Leta yo ku wa 23 Werurwe 2009 nayo yapfuye ubusa.

‘Urwariye abandi ntirwibagiwe u Burundi’!

Mu 1993 uwari Perezida w’u Burundi, Merchior Ndadaye, yivuganywe n’agatsiko k’abasirikare b’u Burundi na n’ubu kataramenyekana. Kuva ubwo muri iki gihugu hatangira intambara ziyobowe na CNDD-FDD, ariko kera kabaye haza kubaho amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha, ku wa 28 Kanama 2000, ku buhuza bwari buhagarariwe na Nelson Mandela wabaye Perezida wa Afurika y’Epfo.

N’ubwo muri iki guhugu hari ibitaranoga muri politiki yaho, harimo n’uko mu 2015, Abarundi basaga ibihumbi 500 bahunze mu bihe by’amatora ya manda ya Gatatu ya Perezida Nkurunziza itaravuzweho rumwe n’abatamushyigikiye, uko bimeze kose nta cyezezi cy’intambara ifunguye kigaragara muri iki gihugu, cyatuma umuntu yikanga indi ikomeye mu Biyaga Bigari.

Icyo umuntu yavuga kuri ubu, ni uko aka karere kagenda kazanzamuka buhoro. Ibi biterwa n’uburyo ibihugu bigaherereyemo bigenda byubaka ubuyobozi butanga icyizere cy’ahazaza bitandukanye n’uko byahoze kera

 

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