Menya impamvu nyayo ituma bimwe mu bihugu byimura imirwa mikuru yabyo

Indonesia ubu iri mu Gikorwa cyo kuvana umurwa mukuru wayo mu mujyi wa Jakarta unigwa n’umubyigano w’imodoka kandi uri gushaya ujya mu nyanja bakawujyana ku kirwa cya Borneo.

Khan Shatyr

Igihe bizakorerwa ntabwo kiramenyekana neza, gusa Perezida Joko Widodo tariki 16 z’uku kwezi kwa munani yabwiye Inteko iby’uyu mugambi.

Impamvu zo kwimura uyu murwa mukuru ntabwo zigoye kubona. Jakarta ni umugi ushaya ujya mu nyanja ku kigero kiri hagati ya 1 -15cm buri mwaka. Hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’uyu mujyi kiri munsi y’umurongo w’inyanja.

Umubyigano w’imodoka waho uteye ubwoba: Mu 2016 ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko uyu mujyi munini cyane ari wo wa mbere kw’isi ubamo umubyigano ukabije w’imodoka.

Ba minisitiri bisaba ko baherekezwa na polisi yo mu mihanda kugira ngo badakerererwa inama.

Igice cy’umujyi nyawo cya Jakarta gituwe n’abaturage miliyoni 30. Hagati ya 2 -4% by’amazi y’uyu mujyi niyo gusa atunganywa. Ni umujyi wugarijwe.

Umurwa mukuru mushya ushobora kujyanwa ahitwa Kalimantan, agace kamwe ko ku kirwa cya Borneo. Ibi bishobora gutwara miliyari 33 z’amadorari, bigasaba kandi ubutaka bungana na hegitari 40,000 zishobora guturwaho n’abantu bagera kuri miliyoni 1,5.

Indonesia ariko sicyo gihugu cya mbere cyisanze kigomba kwimura umurwa mukuru wacyo, izi ni zimwe mu ngero:

1. Kazakhstan

Mu 1997, Perezida Nursultan Nazarbayev yategetse kwimura umurwa mukuru wa Almaty, awusimbuza umujyi uri muri 1,200Km mu majyaruguru.

Ikindi yakoze ni uguhindura izina ry’uwo mujyi mushya witwaga Aqmola – bisobanuye “irimbi ryera” – awita Astana.

Yahise azana abahanga mu myubakire bo kw’isi ngo bubake imbata y’uyu mujyi bahereye kuri zero, kimwe mu birango by’uyu mujyi bizwi ni “Khan Shatyr” ihema rinini kurusha ayandi ku isi.

Ryashushanyijwe rinubakwa na Norman Foster, ririmo amaguriro n’ibibuga by’imyidagaduro.

Bubatse kandi umuturirwa muremure cyane wa Baytarek wubatse nk’igi riteretse mu giti, uwuriho abona imirambi myiza igize uyu murwa wa Astana.

Bubatse ibindi bikorwa remezo binogeye ijisho babifashijwemo n’amafaranga menshi cyane iki gihugu kivana mu bucukuzi bwa Petrol. Umwaka ushize ubukungu bw’iki gihugu bwazamutse ku gipimo cya 4,8%.

Nko kumushimira, mu kwezi kwa gatatu ubwo Perezida Nazarbayev yari avuye ku butegetsi, Inteko ishinga amategeko yafashe umwanzuro wo kumwitirira uyu mujyi.

Umurwa mukuru w’iki gihugu niwo murwa mukuru wa kabiri ugira ubukonje bwinshi ku isi, uza inyuma ya Ulaanbaatar muri Mongolia.

2. Myanmar

Umujyi wa Nay Pyi Taw uruta inshuro enye umujyi wa London mu bunini, ariko ufite abawutuye bacye cyane. Amateka yawo nayo ni magufi, wavutse mu 2005 ushinzwe n’abategetsi ba gisirikare b’iki gihugu kitwaga Burma mbere.

Izina ryawo risobanuye “intebe y’umwami”. Impamvu zo kwimura umurwa mukuru wahoze ari Yangon (Rangoon) ntabwo zigeze zisobanuka neza.

Icyo gihe, minisitiri ushinzwe gutangaza amakuru yabwiye BBC ko umurwa mukuru wimuwe ujyanwa ahantu h’ingenzi (strategic).

Abasesenguzi bavuze ko abasirikare batinyaga ko hari ibitero bizaturuka hanze bigahungabanya umujyi wari wegereye cyane umupaka.

Abandi bavuga ko hari abategetsi bakomeye bayoborera igihugu mu ibanga bariho bakurikiza imigenzo ya y’abami ba cyera yo kubaka imijyi mishya aho abaraguzi bababwiye.

Uyu mujyi ufite ibyerekana ko ari umurwa mukuru; umuhanda uva ku Nteko ishinga amategeko ugana ku biro by’umukuru w’igihugu ufite ubugari bushobora kugendaho imodoka 20, ariko nta modoka nyinshi ziwurangwamo.

Hoteli nziza n’amaguriro manini biri kuri uyu muhanda ariko nta bantu benshi baba babirimo, ni umujyi mushya unabonekamo amashanyarazi kenshi bitandukanye n’ibindi bice byinshi by’iki gihugu.

3. Bolivia

Bolivia yo ifite imirwa mikuru ibiri: Sucre na La Paz.

Sucre niwo wari umurwa mukuru wonyine kugeza mu 1899 ubwo uyu mujyi watsinzwe intambara n’uwa La Paz. Nyuma y’ibi Inteko hamwe n’izindi serivisi nini za rubanda byimuriwe mu mujyi munini w’igihugu, La Paz, urwego rw’ubutabera bwo buguma muri Sucre.

Sucre, iri hagati mu gihugu, aho Bolivia yashingiwe mu 1825. Ifite abaturage 250,000 gusa ugereranyije na La Paz ifite abaturage miliyoni 1,7.

Mu 2007, hatanzwe ikifuzo ko guverinoma n’Inteko byasubira muri Sucre, kubera imyivumbagatanyo ikomeye yari yateye mu mujyi wa La Paz.

4. Nigeria

Kugeza mu 1991 Lagos, umujyi munini kurusha indi muri Nigeria, niyo yari umurwa mukuru. Hari impamvu zinyuranye zatumye bawimurira i Abuja. Iya mbere ni uko Abuja iri hagati mu gihugu.

Byasabaga urugendo rw’iminsi ibiri mu muhanda , 1,600Km, kugira ngo umuntu ave i Maiduguri mu majyaruguru y’iburasirazuba agere ku bategetsi i Lagos ku nyanjya, Abuja ni hagati, ni hafi kuri bose.

Lagos yari ituwe bikabije (niwo mujyi utuwe n’abantu benshi muri Afurika yo munsi ya Sahara) nayo ni indi mpamvu yatumye bahindura.

Abuja yari kandi ituwe n’amoko yose n’abanyapolitiki banyuranye kurusha Lagos.

Lagos ituwe cyane n’aba Yoruba, aba Igbo biganje cyane mu majyepfo y’uburasirazuba, aba Haussa mu majyaruguru y’iburengerazuba. Abuja yabonekaga nk’itabogamiye kuri bamwe mu miturire.

Mu gihe Lagos ari umujyi wagiye ukura, Abuja ni umujyi wabayeho wateguwe – umujyi wa mbere byari bibayeho muri Nigeria.

Umubyigano w’imodoka muri Lagos uteye ubwoba, i Abuja imihanda yahanzwe yagutse bihagije.

Ibigo by’umuco wa Nigeria niho biri, urukiko rw’ikirenga, inteko ishinga amategeko, iboro by’umukuru w’igihugu. Icyakora ibigo byinshi by’ubuzima bw’igihugu biracyafite ibyicaro i Lagos.

5. Burundi

Mu 2007, imyaka ibiri Perezida Nkurunziza amaze kugera ku butegetsi yabwiye Abarundi ko azimurira umurwa mukuru i Gitega, Bujumbura igasigara ari umurwa mukuru w’ubukungu.

Mu mpera z’umwaka ushize ubutegetsi bwarabyemeje, kuva mu ntangiriro z’uyu mwaka Inteko ishinga amategeko na za minisiteri zimwe na zimwe ubu bakorera i Gitega, umurwa mukuru wa politi w’igihugu.

Impamvu zatanzwe ni uko uyu mujyi uri mu ntara ya Gitega ngo ari wo uri hagati mu gihugu.

Kuva uyu mwaka utangiye ibikorwa by’ubutegetsi n’ibigo bya Leta byatangiye kwimukira i Gitega, igikorwa Leta yavuze kizamara imyaka itatu.

U Burundi ubu bufite umurwa mukuru wa politiki nka Gitega, n’umurwa mukuru w’ubukungu nka Bujumbura.

Eric TWAHIRWA




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