Icyegeranyo:Menya inkomoko y’uruhumbirajana rw’ibibazo by’ubukene muri Afurika

Uhuru, uhuru, tunataka uhuru! Ubwigenge, Ubwigenge, turashaka Ubwigenge! Ni intero yagiye agarukwaho n’Abanyafurika mu ndimi zitandukanye kandi iramenyekana cyane mu gihe cy’ubukoroni mu kinyejana cya 20. Iyi mvugo yateye imbaraga ibihugu byinshi by’Afurika zo kubona ubwigenge. Impirimbanyi z’ubwigenge zahisemo kubaho mu buzima bubi, bitewe n’abakoroni b’Abanyaburayi. Gusa barababajwe, baritanga bagambiriye kubona Afurika izira ivangura n’ibibazo, ibintu bikiri inzozi kugeza ubu.

Related image

Irebere uburyo abatuye Afurika aribo bonyine basubiranamo

Uko imyaka yagiye ishira amaboko y’abaharanira ubwigenge yagiye yiyongera ari nako arushaho gukomera ndetse ibihugu bimwe bisa nk’ibitangiye kwizera ubwigenge. Nk’uko amateka abisobanura, tariki ya 3 Gashyantare 1960, uwari minisitiri w’intebe w’Ubwongereza Harold MacMillan yavugiye ijambo rikomeye mu ngoro y’inteko ishinga amategeko y’Afurika y’Epfo.

Minisitiri MacMillan yagize ati: “Umuyaga w’impinduka uri guhuha kuri uyu mugabane. Twabishaka tutabishaka, kuko abaturage barushaho kujijuka bamenya ukuri kwa politiki.” Bidatinze, Abanyafurika benshi batangiye guhumeka umwuka w’ubwigenge.

Nyuma y’ubukoloni, Abanyafurika bari bafite amahirwe yo kwishimira ubwigenge nta gihunga n’ubwoba. Humvikanye indirimbo n’imbyino byinshi bisingiza umurava n’ubutwari bw’abaharaniye ubwingenge. Abana b’Abirabura n’abazungu batangiye gusangira uburezi. Imirimo itandukanye yatangiye gusangirwa, imfungwa z’ubwigenge zirarekurwa, ibyasaga n’ibidashoboka birashoka. Abanyafurika batangira kugira icyizere cyiza cy’ubuzima bw’ahazaza.

Image result for African Problems

Ibiza n’intambara bisenya byinshi

Afurika uyu munsi mu iterambere rishingiye ku bwigenge

Ibihugu byose by’Afurika bifite ubwigenge n’ubusugire uyu munsi. Byinshi biyoborwa n’abaperezida ndetse n’amategeko ashyirwaho n’inteko zisinga amategeko. Uretse ibyagezweho, iterambere rirambye ry’uyu mugabane rikomeje kugarizwa n’uruhuri rw’ibibazo. Africa umugabane uvugwaho ibibazo by’ubukene buturuka ku miyoborere mibi, ubumenyi buke mu ikoranabuhanga, ruswa, guhirika ubutegetsi bibyara amakimbirane n’intambara, indwara z’ibyorezo, inzara n’ibindi bibi byinshi.

Image result for African Problems

Umugabane w’Africa ukize ku mutungo kamere ukwiye kuba imbarutso y’iterambere rirambye. Gusa amahirwe yo kubyaza umusaruro ukenewe uyu mutungo yabaye ingume. Afurika ntiyakabaye ikivugwaho ubukene nk’uko biri. Gusa mu gihe ubukungu bw’uyu mugabane bukikubirwa na bamwe, ugakomeza kuba indiri ya ruswa, ubutegetsi bw’igitugu n’ihirikwa ryabwo, imitwe y’inyeshyamba intambara n’ibindi bisubiza inyuma imibereho y’abaturage, iterambere ry’Afurika rigaragara nk’irikiri kure cyane.

Ruswa ituma habaho kwikubira abandi bakicwa n’imibereho mibi

Ruswa no kwigwizaho imitungo bikomeje kokama Afurika

Abatetsi bo mu bihugu by’afurika bagiye bavugwaho kwinjira mu nzego z’ubuyobozi bafite inyoto y’umutungo kurenza guharanira iterambere rya rubanda. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu bihugu 28 byo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara na Transparency International kuva muri Werurwe 2014 kugera muri Nzeri 2015, bwerekana ko ikigero cya ruswa muri ibi bihugu kiri hejuru. Igiteye inkeke ariko ngo ni uko ibihugu byinjiza umusaruro mbumbe munini aribyo bivugamo ruswa irenze ibindi.

Ubushakatsi bwari bugamije kureba uko ikigero cya ruswa gihagaze mu bihugu by’Afurika, bwagaragaje ko muri rusange abaturage barenga 58% bemeza ko ruswa yakajije umurego mu bihugu byabo. Ubushakashatsi bwashyize Afurika y’Epfo ku mwanya wa mbere w’ibihugu bivugamo ruswa ikabije. Abaturage bagera kuri 83% batuye muri iki gihugu bemeza ko ruswa yiyongereye kurenze imyaka yabanje.

Ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko ibihugu bikomeye mu bukungu munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara ruswa yakajije umurego mu mezi 12 mbere y’ubushakashatsi. Ghana iza mu bihugu 10 bifite ubukungu bwihagazeho kuri uyu mugabane, ifatwa nk’iya kabiri mu bihugu bivugwamo ruswa ikabije. Igihugu cya mbere mu bukungu cya Nigeriya cyagizwe icya gatatu n’ubushakashatsi mu bivugwamo ruswa yiyongera cyane.

Ubwiyongere bwa ruswa mu bihugu bikize kuri uyu mugabane, buteye inkeke iterambere rirambye ryawo. Gusa kuba ibi bihugu aribyo bivugwamo kugira ruswa irenze ibindi, ntibivuzeko ahandi idahari kandi ku kigero kinini. Kuva aho Tanzaniya iboneye umuyobozi mushya “John Pombe Magufuli” yahise atangira guhigisha uruhindu abaryi ba bitugukwaha. Abayikekwaho barirukanwa abandi barafungwa.

Igiteye inkeke kandi abaryi ba ruswa y’umurengera ngo nti babitsa amafaranga mu mabanki yo kuri uyu mugabane, bahita bayirukansa mu mabanki y’ibihugu byateye imbere mu rwego rwo kuyobya ibimenyetso no kuyacungishiriza umutekano. Ibi bituma amafaranga yakagiriye akamaro uyu mugabane agirira abanyaburayi umumaro munini kuko aribo baba bayabitse.

Ruswa niba koko ari inzitizi y’iterambere rusange, biragoye kwemeza ko uyu mugabane uteze kugera ku iterambere rirambye mu gihe ibihugu bikomeye mu bukungu bivugwamo ruswa iri ku muvuduko wo hejuru.

Image result for Burundi bigaragambije

Abenshi bigaragambya bangiza ibyagezweho

Imitwe yitwaje intwaro ikomeje kuba isibaniro muri Afurika

Intambara ni inzitizi ikomeye y’iterambe ry’akarere igihugu n’abanyagihugu iberamo. Mu bihe by’intambara abantu barapfa, ibikorwa remezo bigasenywa, ibikoresho n’amafaranga bikibwa, muri make umuzima n’ibikorwa bibyara inyungu birahagarara. Uyu mugabane urimo imitwe yitwaje intwaro itari mike, ibi bituma yangiza byinshi bigize iterambere rirambye.

Nigeria nk’igihugu gikize kuri uyu mugabane cyugarijwe n’ibikorwa by’umutwe wa Boko Haram. Congo Kinshasa ifite umutungo kamere kurenza ibindi bihugu yabaye isibaniro ry’imitwe yitwara gishirikare. Al Shabab yashegeshe Somaliya, ubu iri gusatira Kenya. Inkundura zabaye mu bihugu by’Abarabu mu gihe cy’imyaka itanu ishize zashegeshe ubukungu bwabyo kandi n’umutwe w’iterabwoba ISIS ntubyoroheye.

Mu gihe amahoro ari make kuri uyu mugabane, nta gushidikanya ko n’umuvuduko w’iterambere ari ingume. Ubusanzwe bagira bati: “Intambara irasenya ntiyubaka.” Niba ibikorwa by’iterambere bisenywa, abakarigizemo uruhare bakicwa, birumvikana ko nta terambere kuri uyu mugabane mu gihe rikizitiwe n’ibikorwa by’intambara n’ubwicanyi.

Ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi n’igitugu (Coup and Dictatorship)

Ibihugu by’Afurika bimaze kubona ubwigenge, abaturage babyo batangiye kwishyirirahoho imiyoborere ndetse no kwitorera abategetsi bababereye. Bamwe mu bategetsi b’ibihugu by’uyu mugabane bagiye babufata nk’impano bwite bakanga gusimburwa. Ikibazo cyo kwizirika ku butegetsi bahawe na rubanda cyangwa bihaye ubwabo, byagiye bibyara ibibazo bya politiki.

mu bihugu byinsi by’Afurika iyo umutegetsi arambiranye akanga kurekura ubutegetsi ku neza cyangwa hari abatavuga rumwe na we, hageragezwa uburyo bwo kumukuraho ku ngufu. Gusimburana ku butegetsi habanje kuba Coup d’Etat nta gisubizo kirimo usibye gusenya igihugu.

Mu myaka mike ishize Coup d’Etat zagiye zihabwa intebe kuri uyu mugabane ariko icyo zabyaye ni amakimbirane abyara intamba no gusenya ibyagezweho gusa. Tutagiye mu mateka ya kure, reka duhere ku nkundura yaranze ibihugu by’abarabu mu myaka mike ishize.

Igihugu cya Tunisia ni cyo cyahereyemo impinduramatwara yo guhirika Perezida Zine El Abidine Ben Ali wari ku butegetsi kubera umujinya wa rubanda nyuma y’uko umusore warangije kaminuza yitwikiye kumuhanda nyuma y’aho polisi yarimaze kumutwarira uducuruzwa yacuruzaga.

Icyo abaturage bari bagamije cyagezweho baramuhirika, ariko hasenyuka byinshi byari byaragezweho. Ubu baracyarwana no gusubiranya igihugu mu gihe cyari gifite icyerekezo cyiza. Hakurikiyeho Misiri naho bahirika Hosni Mubarak wari umaze imyaka isaga 35 ku butegetsi bisa neza nk’ibyabaye muri Tunisia.

Umwihariko wabaye mu mpinduramatwara yo mu gihugu cya Libya cyari gikomeye mu nzego zose. Mu gihe cy’ihirikwa rya perezida Colonel Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi ryanamuhitaye, ryasenye igihugu cyose muri rusange kandi cyari gisanzwe kiyubatse kiniyubashye. Ubu abaturage ba Libya baricuza ubukungu n’amahoro bari bafite ku ngoma ya Gaddafi. Ubu Libya yarizwiho gutera inkunga ibindi bihugu, yabaye isibaniro ry’intambara n’ubukene byugarije rubanda. Ibyasenywe mu myaka mike ishize, bizatwara imyaka n’imyaka yo kubyubakwa.

Image result for Boko haramu

Imitwe itavuga rumwe na leta

Igitera impungenge abakurikiranira hafi politiki n’ubukungu by’ibihugu by’Afurika ni uko ibihugu bimwe bidafata isomo ku byabaye mu majyarugura y’Afurika. Nyuma ya Coup d’Etat zo mu barabu, ibihugu bya Burkina Faso, na Central Africa byabayemo ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi ku mugaragaro. Gusa igihugu cya Central Africa nyuma yo guhirika François Bozizé n’ubu amahoro yabaye ingume bitewe n’intambara mu banyagihugu.
Mu gihugu cy’u Burundi havuzwe Coup d’ Etat ariko irapfuba. Ubu nabo igihugu ntigituje kubere ibibazo by’umutekano muke n’isenyuka ry’ibikorwa remezo.

Izi mpamvu zose zihuriza ku gutsikamira iterambere y’Afurika n’abaturage bayo. Ibi bituma ihora mu ruhumbirajana rw’ibibazo by’ubukene kandi ahanini Abanyafurika ubwabo aribo babigizemo uruhare. Inyungu bwite, kwirengagiza amategeko nkana n’ibindi bikurura impaka muri rubanda ni byo bibera inzitizi iterambere ry’Afurika, igahora iteze ibiganza amahanga.

Abdou Bronze-Celebzmagazine.com




Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *