Ibyaranze ubuzima bwa Alfred Nobel witiriwe igihembo cya Nobel  ufatwa nk’uwazanye urupfu ku isi

Ku ya 21 Ukwakira 1833, umwana w’umuhungu yavukiye mu muryango uherereye I Stockholm muri Suwede’  umuhanga, uzwi cyane, umuvumbuzi , umucuruzi akaba ari nawe washyizeho ibihembo bya Nobel. Se yari Immanuel Nobel na ho nyina yari Andriette Ahlsell Nobel. Umuhungu wabo bamwita Alfred. 

Nobel Prize 2017: the inventor of the awards, Alfred Nobel, didn't want to  be remembered for his work — QuartzSe wa Alfred yari injeniyeri n’umuvumbuzi. Yubatse ibiraro n’inyubako kandi agerageza uburyo butandukanye bwo guturitsa ibitare . 

Muri uwo mwaka Alfred yavutsemo, ubucuruzi bwa se bwagize igihombo buhita buhagarara. Mu 1837, Immanuel Nobel yahisemo kugerageza ubucuruzi bwe ahandi ahava yerekeza muri Finlande n’Uburusiya. Nyina wa Alfred yasigaye i Stockholm kugira ngo yite ku muryango. Icyo igihe, Alfred yari afite bakuru be babiri, Robert wavutse mu 1829, na Ludvig wavutse mu 1831.

Andriette Nobel, wakomokaga mu muryango ukize, yatangije iduka ry’ibiribwa. Amafaranga yabonaga yamufashaga gutunga umuryango.

Umuryango  we wimukira mu Burusiya

Nyuma yigihe, ubucuruzi bwa Immanuel Nobel i St. Petersburg, mu Burusiya bwatangiye gukora neza. Yari yarafunguye amahugurwa y’ubukanishi atanga ibikoresho ku ngabo z’Uburusiya. Yatumye kandi umwami w’Uburusiya n’abajenerali be bemeza ko ibirombe byo mu nyanja byakoreshwa mu guhagarika amato y’abanzi kwinjira no gutera St. Petersburg Ibirombe byahagaritse  amato Y’Abongereza (Royal Navy) kwimukira  mu birindiro bya St. Petersburg mu gihe cy’intambara ya Crimée mu 1853-1856.

Amaze gutsinda mu Burusiya, Immanuel yimuye umuryango we i St. Petersburg mu 1842. Kugeza mu 1843, babyaye undi mu hungu  witwa Emil.

Alfred Nobel | Biography & Facts | BritannicaAbavandimwe bane ba Nobel bahawe uburezi bwo mu cyiciro cya mbere babifashijwemo n’abarimu bigenga. Mu masomo yabo harimo ubumenyi karemano, indimi n’ubuvanganzo. Ku myaka 17, Alfred yashoboraga kuvuga no kwandika mu gisuwede, Ikirusiya, Igifaransa, Icyongereza n’Ikidage.

Alfred yerekeza mu mahanga

Alfred yari ashishikajwe cyane n’ubuvanganzo( literature), ubutabire(chemistry) n’ubugenge(physics). Se yifuzaga ko abahungu be bakurikiza inzira ye kandi ntiyishimiye ko Alfred ashishikazwa n’ubusizi. Yahisemo kohereza umuhungu we mu mahanga kwiga ibijyane n’ubutabire.

I Paris, Alfred yakoraga muri laboratoire yigenga ya Porofeseri T. J. Pelouze, umuhanga mu butabire. Agezeyo, yahuye n’umusore waruzi  ibijyanye n’ubutabire w’umutaliyani, Ascanio Sobrero. Imyaka itatu mbere yaho, Sobrero yari yaravumbuye nitrogliserine, amazi aturika cyane. Byabonwaga ko ari bibi cyane ku buryo bitashoboraga  gukoreshwa.

Alfred yashimishijwe cyane na nitroglycerine n’uburyo ishobora gukoreshwa mu bikorwa by’ubwubatsi. Amaze gusubira mu Burusiya nyuma y’amasomo ye, yakoranye na se mu gukora nitrogliserine nk’igiturika. 

Alfred asubira  muri Suwede

Intambara ya Crimée irangiye, ubucuruzi bwa se wa Alfred bwagenze nabi ahitamo gusubira muri Suwede. Bakuru ba Alfred Robert na Ludvig bagumye mu Burusiya bacunga  ibyasigaye mu bucuruzi bw’umuryango. Baratsinze bakomeza guteza imbere inganda za peteroli mu majyepfo yUburusiya.

Nyuma yo gusubira mu muryango wa Nobel muri Suwede mu 1863, Alfred yibanze mu guteza imbere nitrogliserine nk’igiturika. Ikibabaje ni uko ubu bushakashatsi bwavuyemo impanuka zahitanye abantu benshi, barimo murumuna wa Alfred, Emil. Guverinoma yafashe icyemezo cyo guhagarika ubwo bushakashatsi mu mbibi z’umujyi wa Stockholm.

Alfred Nobel and the Legacy of the Nobel PrizeAlfred ntiyacitse intege maze yimurira ubushakashatsi bwe mu bwato  ku kiyaga cya Mälaren. Mu 1864, yatagiye gukora nitrogliserine  nyinshi ariko ntiyahwemye kugerageza n’inyongeramusaruro zitandukanye kugirango umusaruro ube mwiza kurushaho.

Alfred avumbura urutambi “dinamite”

binyuze mu bushakashatsi bwe, Alfred yasanze, ko kuvanga nitrogliserine n’umucanga mwiza witwa kieselguhr byahindura amazi ya paste yashoboraga kubumbwa mo inkoni, Izi nkoni  zashoboraga kwinjizwa mu mwobo, Ivumburwa ryakozwe mu 1866. Alfred yabonye  uburenganzira bwemewe bwo gutunga ibyo bikoresho umwaka ukurikiyeho. Ubwo buvumbuzi abwita urutambi  “dinamite.” Yahimbye kandi igisasu gishobora guturika.

Alfred Nobel, creator of dynamite and high-minded prizes -Ibi byavumbuwe  mu gihe  gucukura diyama na pneumatike byari byaratagiye gucukurwa muri rusange. Hamwe na hamwe, ibyo byavumbuwe byafashije kugabanya ibiciro byimirimo myinshi y’ubwubatsi nko gucukura  inzira zo munsi y’ubutaka (tunel), guturitsa urutare , kubaka ibiraro, n’ibindi.

Yashinze inganda ahantu hatandukanye

Dynamite na caping ziturika byari bikenewe cyane mu bikorwa by’ubwubatsi. Kubera iyo mpamvu, Alfred yashoboye gushinga inganda ahantu 90 hatandukanye. Yabaga i Paris ariko akenshi yajyaga mu ganda ze mu bihugu birenga 20. Yigeze kuvugwa ho ko ameze nk’inzererezi zikize cyane mu burayi . Yakoraga cyane i Stockholm (Suwede), Hamburg (Ubudage), Ardeer (Scotland), Paris na Sevran (Ubufaransa), Karlskoga (Suwede) na San Remo (Ubutaliyani). 

Ahura  na Bertha von Suttner banashyingiranwa

Alfred nta muryango we bwite yari afite. Umunsi umwe, yatangarije mu binyamakuru ko  umunyamabanga we . (Umudamu wo muri Otirishiya), Bertha Kinsky von Chinic yabonye akazi.Amaze gukora igihe gito, yasubiye muri Otirishiya gushyingiranwa na Count Arthur von Suttner.

Alfred na Bertha von Suttner bakomeje kuba inshuti kandi bahana amabaruwa mu myaka yashize. Nyuma yaje kugira ishyaka cyane mu rugendo rw’amahoro. Yanditse igitabo kizwi cyane kitwa  “Lay Down Your Arms.” Igihe Alfred Nobel yaje kwandika ubushake bwe bwo gushyiraho ibihembo bya Nobel, yashyizemo igihembo ku bantu cyangwa imiryango iteza imbere amahoro.

Why Nobel Prizes were started?

Alfred yapfiriye i San Remo mu Butaliyani ku ya 10 Ukuboza 1896. Mu bushake bwe bwa nyuma no mu isezerano rye, yanditse ko umutungo we wose ugomba  gukoreshwa mu guha ibihembo abakoze ibyiza bagateza imbere ubumuntu (humanity),mu bijyanye n’ ubugenge (physics), ubutabire(chemistry). , physiologiya(physiology) cyangwa ubuvuzi(medicine), ubuvanganzo(literature ) n’amahoro(peace)

Ntabwo abantu bose babyishimiye. Ubushake bwe bwarwanywaga na bene wabo kandi n’abayobozi mu bihugu bitandukanye. Byatwaye imyaka ine kugirango abayobozi be bumvishe impande zose gukurikiza ibyifuzo bya Alfred.

Alfred Nobel and His Prizes | Boston Review

Mu 1901, igihembo cya mbere cyitiriwe Nobel mu bugenge , ubutabire,  ubuvuzi n’ubuvanganzo cyatanzwe bwa mbere i Stockholm, muri Suwede ndetse n’igihembo cy’amahoro muri Kristiania (ubu ni Oslo) muri  Noruveje.

JADO Udahemuka

Bana natwe tugususurutse umenye




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