Amwe mu mateka ya Napoléon Bonaparte umwe mu bagabo bakomeye baranze intangiriro y’igihe turimo

Napoleon Bonaparte umwarimu, umwami w’abami, umujenerali w’umurwanyi wabayeho hagati y 1769 n’ 1821, yaranze intangiriro y’igihe turimo (Epoque Contemporaine). 

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Yavutse kuwa 15 Kanama 1769 ahitwa Ajaccio kuri kimwe mu birwa by’u Bufaransa biherereye mu Nyanja ya Mediteraniya, atabaruka kuwa 5 Gicuransi 1821 ku kirwa cyitwa Saint Helene. Napoleon Bonaparte ni mwene Carlo Bonaparte na Leatitia Ramolino. Napoleon Bonaparte yashakanye na Josephine De Beauhamais, umugore w’impinduramatwara wanagaragaye mu cyiswe “consulat”.

Napoleon ntitwamuvuga tutabanje kuvuga revolution Française (impinduramatwara y’abafaransa) nk’imwe mu mpinduramatwara ikomeye mu mateka y’isi, nk’imwe mu mpamvu zatumye haduka ikirangirire mu mateka y’isi, Napoleon Bonaparte. Muri iyi mpinduramatwara humvikanye cyane abaturage b’abakene (sans curottes) barwanyaga umwami Louis XVI n’agatsiko k’abakire (bourgeois et clerges).

Impinduramatwara yarabaye ku isonga humvikana umugabo Robbes Pierre ndetse na bazakoraho Guillotin aliyasi Kamegeri kubera icyuma yakoze cyo kwica abari ku ngoma ya Louis XVI bakabanza kukimwicisha kugira ngo barebe ko gikora neza. Louis XVI n’umugore we Marie Antoinnette na bo baje kunyongwa.

Hasimburanye abantu benshi ariko rubanda bakomeza kubaho nabi. Nibwo umugabo Napoleon wari ku rugamba mu Misiri yasigiye bagenzi be inshingano zo gukomeza kuyobora urugamba hanyuma we arataha ajya gukora coup d’etat (guhirika ubutegetsi), nyuma yo kwivuga ibigwi, gushyira mu bikorwa ibyo yemereye abafaransa mu gihe gito cyane, bati noneho dore “revolution”.

Mu kwezi k’Ugushyingo 1799 ubwo yari afite imyaka 30 gusa yashyizeho icyitwaga consulat twabonye haruguru, yagombaga kuyobora u Bufaransa mu nzibacyuho kugeza mu 1804 akaba yarafatanyitje na Roger Ducos, Sieyes, Eugene Viceroy, Hortense na Josephine wa mugore we wafatwaga nk’umugore w’impinduramatwara. Ngabo abagabo n’umugore bashyize mu bikorwa coup d’etat twabonye haruguru.

Aba bantu bihutiye gushaka umubano n’ibihugu byari bikomeye kurusha ibindi ku mugabane w’uburayi: Autriche n’Ubwongereza kugira ngo bidakoma mu nkokora umugambi w’iyo Repubulika yajegajegaga. Ikindi bihutiye ni uguha agaciro impirimbanyi z’impinduramatwara nka Lafayette Barrere na Lazare Carmot wanahise aba Minisitire w’Intambara, ikintu ibihugu by’I Burayi bitahaye agaciro kandi byari bigiye kugira ingaruka mu isi y’icyo gihe.

Mu 1804 consulat yarangije imirimo yayo maze Napoleon atangaza ko abaye empereur (umwami w’abami) w’u Bufaransa, noneho ibihugu by’i Burayi bitari byishimiye Repubulika bibisamira hejuru ndetse bimwe muri byo nk’Uburusiya, Autriche, Sweden n’Ubwongereza byihutiye kwemeza Napoleon nk’umwami w’abami w’u Bufansa ndetse batangira kumwita umuvandimwe ariko ntibamenya ko bari kumutegurira inzira yo gutera benshi muri bo.

Mu mwaka yabayemo umwami w’abami, mu mwaka yiswemo umuvandimwe, yafatanyije n’Ubutaliyani batera Autriche. Kuko yifuzaga gufata Vienne (umurwa mukuru wa Autriche) vuba cyane, yaremye imitwe itatu y’ingabo maze atera Autriche.

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Mu ntangiriro y’urugamba yagenderaga kuri zimwe mu nteruro zagize ingaruka ku bihugu hafi ya byose by’i Burayi zirimo iyagiraga iti “la mort n’est rien mais vivre vaincu et sans gloire c’est la mort toujour”, bishatse kuvuga ko urupfu ntacyo ruvuze ahubwo ko guhora utsindwa nta ntsinzi ari ugupfa iteka ryose. Izo nteruro, ukongeraho inzozi yari yararose akiri umwana ko azayobora isi yo mu gihe cye, mu gihe abenshi bazifataga nk’ikinyoma we yazifashe nk’ukuri ku rugero umuntu wese atakwiyumvisha. Ubwo yamaraga gutsinda Autriche ari i Vienne nibwo yashatse umugore wa kabiri Marie Louise.

Ubutwari no gutsinda byaranze Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon yari intwari kandi yagize uruhare runinini mu mibereho y’isi dutuye mu rwego rwa politike, rw’imibereho myiza ndetse n’ubukungu ku buryo abafaransa benshi bavuga ko iyo Napoleon adapfa akiri muto buri Mufaransa ubu aba ari umukire babihera k’ukuntu politike ye ya mpatsibihugu yazamuraga imibereho ya rubanda rugufi. Napoleon yabaye umwami w’abami w’umurwanyi ugereranyije n’abandi nka ba Charmagne, umwami w’abami w’Ubudage.

Umwarimu umwe w’amateka witwa Goethe yagize ati: “ Napoleon yumvaga isi yabyazwa umusaruro birushijeho noneho rubanda rwa giseseka rukabona imirimo yatuma bazamuka bakagera ku rwego ruruse urwo bari bariho”.

Napoleon yashyizeho amategeko mboneza mubano ndetse n’amategeko mpanabyaha ayita “Code Napoleonienne”. Ayo mategeko akaba na magingo aya akoreshwa mu bihugu byose byo ku isi.
Igitabo “La grande revolution du monde” kigira kiti “Mu Bufaransa bwa Napoleon, ubukungu bwarazamutse ateza imbere uburezi ndetse arwana intambara nyinshi, agenda yigarurira ibihugu byinshi. Kugeza aho bari basigaye bamwita umugabo urangwa n’intsinzi (un homme victorieux)”.

Ibihugu byinshi by’i Burayi byari bigiye kuba amateka kuko igihugu cyose yigaruriga kisangaga kigiye kujya gitanga raporo i Paris. Kugira ngo agere kuri ibyo byose byasabaga abasirikare benshi bashoboye, buri Mufaransa ufite hagati y’imyaka 20 na 25 yagombaga kuba umusirikare, ufite impamvu cyane cyane ababaga bashatse abagore vuba bishyuraga amafaranga nk’umusimbura wabo.  Mu 1804 yari afite ingabo zigera kuri 2 613 000 ukongeraho izindi z’ibihugu yagendaga yigarurira.

Napoleon Bonaparte atangira gucogora
Iyo Napoleon Bonaporte yigaruriraga igihugu yacyomekaga ku ubwami bw’u Bufaransa, buragenda buba bunini nk’uko yabyifuzaga rwose, ariko yibagirwa ko ari gushaka gukora igihugu kimwe cy’abaturage bavuga indimi zitandukanye ndetse bakagira n’imico n’amadini bitandukanye. Aha niho yigeze kwibeshya ngo: “ Je suis primus interpares” bishatse kuvuga ngo ndi uwa mbere mu guhuza cyangwa se kunga abantu batandukanye. Kugeza aho muri ‘les grogneurs’ (ingabo zarindaga umwami w’abami Napoleon) hinjiyemo n’ingabo z’amahanga mu rwego rwo kugaragaza ko abaturage b’ubwami bw’u Bufaransa bushya ari bamwe.

Kubera guhimbarwa n’intsinzi no gushaka gushyira mu bikorwa inzozi ze kandi ari inzozi nyine, abigiranye ubuhubutsi atera Uburusiya mu gihe cy’itumba. Niho yahuriye n’umujenerali ukomeye cyane, intwaro Abarusiya bakubitisha buri muntu wese wageragezaga kubatera abigiranye ubuhubutsi nk’ubwo Napoleon yagize.

Abarusiya batari bashoboye guhangana n’iyo ntwari yo mu kinyejana cya 19 bahisemo gusiga Moscow barahunga ubundi batwika imyaka yose yari mu mirima. Ubwo Bonaparte yateraga yarinze agera i Moscow asa n’uri kwasa ikiziranyenzi cyangwa ikibonobono ariko ntiyari azi ko ategerejwe na general Hiver.

Uyu mujenerali wagize Napoleon ayo ifundi yagize ibivuzo, ntiyari yiteguwe ko bashobora guhura. Napoleon yajyanye ingabo 500 000 atahana ibihumbi 30 000, ngiyo intandaro yo gutsindwa urugamba rwanyuma yarwanye. Maze ibihugu by’i Burayi bitari byishimiye izo ntambara bibyuririraho, Napoleon aratsindwa ahungira ku kirwa cyitwa Saint Helene ari na ho yaguye.

Napoleon Bonaparte yatabarutse bavuga ko isi ikize umuntu mubi w’igitugu kandi wari ubangamiye buri kiremwamuntu gituye ku isi. Ariko uko iminsi yagendaga yicuma niko bagendaga bashyira mu bikorwa ibyiza byinshi yari yaranditse ariko akava mu mubiri atabigezeho, nguko uko Napoleon Bonaparte yahindutse umuntu ukomeye isi ya none ifata nk’ikitegererezo (role model).

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Igitabo yise Lamentation de Napoleon cyangwa amaganya ya Napoleon gisobanura neza ko ibibi byose yavuzweho atari byo, nkaho yagarutse ku bamwitaga umuntu ukoresha icyenewabo yasobanuye ko yagombaga kubanza agakorana n’abantu yizeye kandi nyuma abagaragayeho ubushobozi buke bavanywe mu kazi basimbuzwa abashoboye. Napoleon Bonaparte washatse abagore babiri Josephine na Marie Louise, yapfuye asize abana 3, Napoleon Francis Charles, Ccharles Leon na Helene Napoleone.

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