Africa: Abantu 9 bahawe  igihembo Nobel cy’Amahoro

Inkuru z’itangwa ry’ibihembo byitiriwe Nobeli, ni zimwe mu nkuru zivugwa cyane  mu bitangazamakuru bitandukanye  bikaba akarusho kuko uwabihawe afatwa nk’intwari mubatuye isi.

Uko bakurikirana mu bihembo

Dr. Albert Luthuli wari umuyobozi w’umutwe wa politiki ANC muri Afrika y’Epfo mu 1960

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Anouar El-Sadate wari perezida wa Misiri mu 1978.

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Musenyeri Desmond Tutu wari umushumba wa diyoseze Angilikani ya Cape Town muri Afrika y’Epfo mu 1984

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Nelson Mandela wari umuyobozi wa ANC na Perezida Frederik De Klerk w’Afurika y’Epfo mu 1993

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Uwahoze ari umunyamabanga mukuru wa ONU Kofi Annan mu 2001.

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Umutegarugoli Wangari Maathai wo muri Kenya mu 2004

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Umutegarugoli Ellen Johnson Sirleaf wari perezida wa Liberiya mu 2011.

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Dr Denis Mukwege wo muri Repubulika iharanira demokarasi ya Congo mu 2018.

Menya byinshi ku izina Nobel

Ku badakurikirana cyane iyo uvuze izina Nobel, abantu benshi batekereza ku gihembo gikomeye gitangwa buri mwaka ku rwego rw’Isi, gihabwa abantu bakoze ibintu bidasanzwe, byahinduye imibereho y’abantu.

Ni bake cyane bazi neza inkomoko n’impamvu y’itangwa ry’ibi bihembo bitanga akayabo ku babitsindiye.


Igihembo cyitiriwe Nobeli gifatwa nk’igihembo gikomeye kurusha ibindi ku isi, ndetse abantu bakomeye bifuza kuba bagira amahirwe yo kucyegukana, ariko ababigeraho ni mbarwa.

Tugiye kubavira imuzi amateka, ibigwi, ndetse n’imitangire by’iki gihembo kidasanzwe.

Nobel ni muntu ki?

Alfred Nobel ni umushakashatsi ukomeye, wavukiye mu muryango w’aba enjeniyeri (engineers).

Yavutse ku itariki 21 Ukwakira 1833 mu mujyi wa Stockholm, muri Suwede – Sweden. Nobeli yari umunyabutabire (chemist), ndetse akaba n’umu engineer. Nobel yavutse ari umuhungu wa 4 mu muryango w’abana 8 bavutse kuri Immanuel na Caroline Nobel.

Abana bane gusa muri uyu muryango ni bo babashije gukura kugeza mu bugimbi, abandi bose bapfuye bakiri bato. Bivugwa ko na Nobel yarwaragurikaga akiri muto.
alfred-nobel

Nobel yavumbuye ibintu byinshi mu bijyanye n’ibikoresho bya gisirikare cyane cyane ibiturika nka bombe, ndetse aza kumenyekana kubera kuvumbura igiturika kizwi nka Dynamite – urutambi mu Kinyarwanda.

Mu buzima bwe, Nobeli yavumbuye ibintu bisaga 350, ndetse aza no gukuramo ubutunzi buhambaye, bwakomeje no kwikuba inshuro zitari nkeya kugeza magingo aya.

Nobel yatabarutse ku itariki 10 Ukuboza 1896, azize kuva amaraso mu bwonko – cerebral haemorrhage, afite imyaka 63 y’amavuko.

Nobel kuva akiri umwana yakundaga ibiturika ( explosives). Ibi byaranakomeje mu buzima bwe kugeza aho atabarutse.

Yizeraga ko mu gukora ibiturika ndetse n’ibikoresho bya gisirikare, yashoboraga gufasha mu guhosha intambara nyinshi zariho mu gihe cye. Ibi ntiyabyumvikanagaho na benshi bo mu gihe cye, ndetse aza kubibona mu mwaka wa 1888 ubwo umuvandimwe we Ludvig Nobel yitabaga Imana.

Nyuma y’urupfu rw’uyu muvandimwe wa Nobel, ikinyamakuru cyo mu bufaransa cyanditse inkuru Le marchand de la mort est mort, bisobanuye ngo umucuruzi w’urupfu yapfuye. Iki kinyamakuru cyari cyibeshye ko uwapfuye ari Alfred Nobel umucuruzi w’ama bombe n’ibiturika byatwaraga ubuzima bw’abantu benshi b’igihe cye.

Nobel yababajwe cyane n’iyi nkuru ndetse atangira kwibaza uko azibukwa namara gupfa. Ibi byaje gutuma atangira gutekereza ku kintu cyazatuma yibukwa neza nyuma yo gupfa, aho gufatwa nk’umucuruzi w’urupfu. Abashakashatsi ku mibereho ya Nobel bemeza ko iyi nkuru ishobora kuba ari yo yatumye Nobel atekereza umushinga w’itangwa ry’ibihembo byamwitiriwe.

Ibyifuzo bya Nobel.
Nobel yagiye yandika inshuro nyinshi ku byifuzo bye, ariko inyandiko ye ya nyuma ku byifuzo bye yayanditse kuwa 27/11/1895, mu mujyi wa Paris mu bufaransa. Ibyifuzo bye bya nyuma byari uko ubutunzi bwe bwazifashishwa mu gushyiraho igihembo ku bantu bazajya baba baragize icyo bakora gihindura imibereho n’ubuzima bw’abantu muri rusange.

Nobel yakoze Inyandiko yagaragaza icyifuzo cya Alfred Nobel.

Muri iyi nyandiko, yagaragaje ko 94% by’ubutunzi bwe byazajya byifashishwa mu gutegura no gutanga ibyo bihembo; ni ukuvuga miliyoni zisaga 31 z’amafaranga yakoreshwaga icyo gihe muri Sweden. Tubariye ku gaciro k’idolari rya amerika muri 2008, umutungo wari ugenewe itangwa ry’ibihembo bya Nobel wanganaga na Miliyoni 186 USD.

Mu gutanga ibyo bihembo, yateganyije ibyiciro bitanu; aribyo ubugenge – physics, ubutabire – chemistry, imiterere y’ibinyabuzima n’ubuvuzi – physiology and medicine, Ubuvanganzo – literature, ndetse n’uwaharaniye amahoro – peace.

Abashinzwe gutanga igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel

Ku itariki 29 Kamena 1900, nibwo hashinzwe Nobel foundation. Iyi yashyizweho mu rwego rwo gucunga umutungo wasizwe na Nobel, ndetse no gutera inkunga itangwa ry’ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel. Nobel foundation nta hantu ihurira no guhitamo abazagenerwa igihembo. Ibigo bine gusa, nibyo bifite ububasha bwo gufata umwanzuro ku bazagenerwa ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel.

Muri ibyo bigo 4, Ibigo 3 ni ibyo muri Sweden, naho ikindi kimwe ni icyo muri Norvege. Ibyo bigo ni the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, na Norwegian Nobel Committee.

Uwatsindiye igihembo cya Nobel ahabwa Umudali ukoze muri zahabu, ndetse n’akayabo k’amadolari y’Amerika asaga Miliyoni imwe ni ibihumbi 200,ni ukuvuga asaga miliyari imwe(1)y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda. Buri mwaka, umuhango wo gutanga Igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel ubera I Oslo muri Norvege, naho ibindi bihembo bya siyansi bigatangirwa I Stockholm muri Sweden.

Guhitamo abahabwa ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel

Mu kwezi kwa 9 kubanziriza umwaka ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel bizatangwamo, Nobel committee yoherereza abantu basaga 3000 impapuro zo kuzuzaho amazina y’abo babona bakwiriye guhabwa ibyo bihembo.

Mu guhitamo abazahabwa ibihembo bya Nobel muri siyansi, izo mpapuro zihabwa abantu bo mu ma Kaminuza no mu mashuri makuru akomeye; naho mu guhitamo abazahabwa igihembo cy’amahoro, izo mpapuro zohererezwa guverinoma zitandukanye ku isi, ndetse n’abantu cyangwa imiryango yigeze gutsindira igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel.

Izo mpapuro zigarurwa bitarenze ukwezi kwa mbere k’umwaka ibihembo bya Nobel bizatangwamo, Nobel committee ikazigenzura, ikongeramo n’andi mazina y’abantu babona babikwiriye, ariko batagaragara kuri izo mpapuro; ubundi iyo Komite igahitamo abantu 300 gusa. Aba bantu 300 baguma ari ibanga, ntago batangazwa mu buryo ubwo ari bwose.

Nyuma yo gukusanya izo mpapuro, kuzigenzura no guhitamo abantu 300 gusa, hakurikiraho amatora. Muri ayo matora hazamo abahagarariye ibigo bine bishinzwe itangwa ry’ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel, bagatora abakandida bakwiye ibi bihembo bagendeye ku bwiganze bw’amajwi. Nyuma y’aya matora, abatsindiye ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel baratangazwa ku mugaragaro.

Ibihembo mu bya siyansi bihabwa abantu ku giti cyabo, bitandukanye n’igihembo cy’amahoro gishobora guhabwa abantu ku giti cyabo, cyangwa ibigo runaka.

Mu mateka y’ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel, abantu 2 ni bo gusa babashije gutsindira ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel barapfuye; abo ni Eric Axel watsindiye igihembo cy’ubuvanganzo mu 1931, na General Dag Hamarskjold watsindiye igihembo cy’amahoro. Kuva mu mwaka w’1974, Umuntu ntashobora guhabwa igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel yarapfuye, kereka amaze gusa igihe kitarenze umwaka, ubaze uhereye igihe abatsindiye ibihembo batangarijwe ku mugaragaro – ni ukuvuga nyuma y’amatora.

Ibirori by’itangwa ry’ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel

Ibirori by’itangwa ry’ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel biba ku itariki 10 Ukuboza kwa buri mwaka, mu rwego rwo kwibuka Nobel, kuko kuri iyo tariki ari bwo Nobel yatabarutse. Ibi birori biba bigizwe n’ibice 3 by’ingenzi, ari byo umuhango wo gutanga ibihembo, kwiyakira, ndetse n’inyigisho itangwa n’uwatsindiye igihembo cya Nobel ivuga ku cyamuhesheje icyo gihembo.

Iyi nyigisho ariko, ishobora gutangwa mu cyumweru kibanziriza umunsi w’itangwa ry’ibihembo bya Nobel, cyangwa se bitarenze amezi atandatu uhereye ku munsi w’itangwa ry’ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel.

Ibihembo mu bya siyansi bitangirwa I Stockholm muri Suwede – Sweden, muri salle yitwa Stockholm concert hall. Abatsindiye ibihembo babishyikirizwa n’umwami wa Suwede uriho muri icyo gihe. Nyuma y’uwo muhango, abawitabiriye bakiyakirira muri salle yitwa Stockholm city hall.

Igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel cyo gitangirwa I Oslo muri Norvege, muri salle yitwa Oslo city hall. Umuntu cyangwa umuryango watsindiye iki gihembo agishyikirizwa n’umuyobozi mukuru wa Nobel committee, imbere y’umwami wa Norvege. Nyuma y’uwo muhango, abitabiriye biyakirira muri Hoteli yitwa Oslo Grand Hotel y’I Oslo muri Norvege.

Abantu ba mbere batsindiye ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel

Gutora bwa mbere abantu bahabwa ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel ntago byari ibintu byoroshye, cyane cyane ibihembo mu bya siyansi. Ibi byaterwaga nuko aba scientifiques muri icyo gihe bakoraga ubushakashatsi bwinshi, kandi bwose bufite icyo bumaze mu guhindura ubuzima bw’abantu. Kubera iyo mpamvu, itangwa ry’ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel ku nshuro ya mbere ryakurikiwe n’impaka zikomeye cyane.

Ibi ariko ntibyabujije ko haboneka batanu ba mbere begukanye ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel. Wilhem roentgen yatsindiye igihembo cyitiriwe nobel mu bugenge – physics, Jacobus Van’t Holf atsindira icy’ubutabire – chemistry, Sully Prudhonne atsindira icy’ubuvanganzo – literature.

Emil Von Behring ni we watsindiye igihembo cya mbere cyitiriwe Nobel cy’imiterere y’ibinyabuzima n’ubuvuzi – physiology and medicine, naho Jean Henri Dunant atsindira icy’amahoro, kubera gushinga umuryango utabara imbabare, uzwi cyane nka Croix Rouge – Red cross.

Abantu n’imiryango batsindiye ibihembo bya Nobel byinshi.

Hari abantu n’imiryango bagiye batsindira ibihembo byinshi byitiriwe Nobel, ndetse bafatwa nk’abantu badasanzwe mu mateka y’itangwa ry’ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel.

Marie Curie yatsindiye ibihembo bibiri byitiriwe Nobel, icy’ubutabire (chemistry n’icy’ubugenge , physics); aba umuntu wenyine kugeza ubu watsindiye ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel muri siyansi 2 zitandukanye.

Linus Pauling na we yatsindiye igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel cy’ubutabire n’icy’amahoro. Aba umuntu wenyine kugeza ubu watsindiye ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel mu byiciro bitandukanye.

John Bardeen yatsindiye ibihembo 2 by’ubugenge – physics, naho Frederick Sanger atsindira ibihembo 2 by’ubutabire ( chemistry).
Umuryango wakoze amateka yo gutsindira ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel byinshi kugeza ubu, ni umuryango w’aba curie. Uyu muryango watsindiye ibihembo 4 byose hamwe. Marie Curie n’umugabo we Pierre Curie batsindiye ibihembo 3; hanyuma umukobwa wabo Juliot Curie n’umugabo we nabo batsindira ikindi gihembo kimwe. Byose hamwe ubiteranyije bikaba 4 ku muryango umwe.

Umuryango utabara imbabare croix rouge na wo watsindiye igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel inshuro 3, naho umuryango w’abibumbye wita ku mpunzi utsindira igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel inshuro 2.

Abantu banze kwakira igihembo cya Nobel

Nubwo iki gihembo cyifuzwa n’umubare mwinshi ku Isi, hari abantu banze ku bushake igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel. Mu 1964, Jean Paul Sartre yagenewe igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel cy’ubuvanganzo; ariko igitangaje ni uko uyu yanze kucyakira.

Mu 1973, undi mugabo witwa Le Duc Tho yahawe igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel, ariko aza kucyanga, avuga ko atakwakira igihembo cy’amahoro mu gihe muri Vietnam intambara iri guca ibintu.

Abatsindiye ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel mu mwaka ushize wa 2016.

Mumwaka wa 2016, Jean Pierre Sauvage na bagenzi be batsindiye igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel cy’ubutabire – Chemistry, David J Thouless na bagenzi be batsindira icy’ubugenge – physics, Yoshinuri Ohsumi atsindira icy’imiterere y’ibinyabuzima n’ubuvuzi – Physiology, Bob Dylan atsindira icy’ubuvanganzo – Literature.

Igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel 2016 kandi cyongeye guhabwa Perezida wa Colombia Juan Manuel Santos kubera guhosha amakimbirane yari amaze imyaka isaga 50 mu gihugu cye.

 

Akazuba Cynthia-Celebzmagazine.com




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